Researchers led by Spanish scientist Juan Carlos Izpisúa have created for the first time a human-monkey hybrid in a laboratory in China – an important step towards using animals for human organ transplants, project collaborator Estrella Núñez confirmed to EL PAÍS.
The team, made up of members of the Salk Institute in the United States and the Murcia Catholic University (UCAM) in Spain, genetically modified monkey embryos to deactivate genes that are essential to the formation of organs. The scientists then injected human stem cells, which are capable of creating any type of tissue, into the embryo. The product of this work is a monkey with human cells that has not been born, because researchers stopped the process. The experiment took place in China to avoid legal issues.
“The results are very promising,” says Núñez, a biologist and vice chancellor of research at UCAM. The team has not provided more details because they are waiting to publish their findings in an internationally renowned scientific journal. “From UCAM and the Salk Institute we are now trying not only to move forward and continue experimenting with human cells and rodent and pig cells, but also with non-human primates,” explains Izpisúa. “Our country is a pioneer and a world leader in these investigations,” he adds.
Izpisúa, born in Hellín (Albacete) in 1960, says that in 2017 his team conducted “the first experiment of human and pig chimeras in the world,” although with less success. “The human cells did not take hold. We saw that they contributed very little [to the development of the embryo]: one human cell for ever 100,000 pig cells,” says the Argentinean veterinarian Pablo Ross, a researcher from the University of California at Davis and a co-author of that experiment.
Izpisúa’s team has been able to create chimeras between more similar species, for instance the rat and the mouse, which is five times closer than humans and pigs. In 2017, the researchers also used the revolutionary genome editing tool CRISPR to deactivate genes in mouse embryos that are fundamental to the development of the heart, eyes and pancreas. The team then introduced rat stem cells that were capable of generating these organs. The result was a series of rat-mouse chimera embryos, whose gestation was also stopped in accordance to the international consensus regarding these types of experiments.
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