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Jenner and the Speckled Monster: The True History of Smallpox

Published: September 25, 2021
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Edward Jenner


Smallpox, or “the speckled monster”, was the most feared disease of the 18th century. According to what we are told, the people of Europe at the time were helpless against smallpox until a young doctor named Edward Jenner observed that dairy maids who had previously contracted “cowpox” were immune from the disease. This led Jenner to develop a vaccine that was credited with ending the epidemic and eventually eradicating smallpox altogether. The romanticized tale of Jenner, the dairy maid, and the discovery of vaccination has gone down in the history books as one of the great triumphs of modern medicine.

Today, the mainstream medical establishment uses the example of smallpox as a means of promoting the safety and efficacy of vaccination against other “infectious” diseases. However, the truth is that the smallpox story is far more complex than the above fairy tale that is taught in schools. The true history of Jenner’s vaccine is not one of scientific genius or medical triumph, rather, it is the story of how the archaic practice of introducing toxic substances into the bloodstream as a means of “curing” disease was adopted into mainstream medical tradition.


The Smallpox story leads many people to believe that it was Edward Jenner who ‘discovered’ the concept of immunity and went on to invent vaccination. In actual fact, the concept of achieving immunity to a disease after exposure to it was first formulated by the ancient Greeks when Thucydides observed that people who survived the plague of Athens were protected from reinfection[1].

This early observation of immunity developed into the idea that a person could be exposed to a mild form of a disease in order to gain protection against a more severe form. This resulted in the practice of ‘inoculation’, the precursor to vaccination, which was employed in many parts of the world, decades before Jenner began formulating his ideas regarding smallpox.

Furthermore, although Jenner’s work is regarded as the foundation of immunology, he was not the first to suggest that infection with ‘cowpox’ produced immunity against smallpox, nor was he the first to carry out cowpox inoculation for this purpose[2].

Evidence suggests that inoculation was practiced in parts of Africa, India and China long before the 18th century. In the 1670s, inoculation was introduced to the Turkish empire by Circassian traders and some 40-50 years later the practice came to Europe by way of travelers arriving from Istanbul, almost a century before Jenner’s smallpox vaccine[3].

“Inoculation” was a barbaric practice that involved taking matter (often pus) from the sores of a person suffering from the disease and introducing it into the bloodstream of a healthy person via cuts in the skin. At this time, medicine was in its infancy and most ‘cures’ were based on local traditions or superstitions. In fact, according to William White in his 1885 book The Story of the Great Delusion, “A great part of medicine was a combination of absurdity with nastiness”[4].

The principle underlying inoculation is strikingly similar to the homeopathic principle of isopathy (curing a disease with the products of said disease), a concept also embodied in the “signa naturae” of Paracelsus, the great philosopher and chemist of the German renaissance who lived during the 15th and 16th centuries. And according to some sources, even he got his ideas from much earlier esoteric teachings stemming from the druids and seers of ancient Britain and Germany[5].

The rest of this article is an exploration into the true history surrounding Edward Jenner, vaccination and the disease known as “smallpox”. And as we shall find out, it is a rather different tale than the one we have been told.


Edward Jenner was a British physician born in 1749 in a village called Berkeley in Gloucestershire. He attended grammar school in Cirencester and at the age of 16, he apprenticed to Mr. Ludlow, a surgeon operating near Bristol[6].

Interestingly, though referred to as a ‘physician’, Jenner did not pass the necessary medical examinations to earn such a title. In fact, he bought his medical degree, though this was not uncommon at the time. And though he was a fellow at the Royal Society, this was not due to his work in the medical field, but rather his study of the Cuckoo bird[7].

Most people are unaware that Jenner’s research into smallpox was wrought with contradictory evidence and unsubstantiated claims. For example, early on in his investigations, he cited cases in which smallpox ‘sometimes’ gave immunity against cowpox and other cases in which persons were repeatedly infected with cowpox. He then promised to provide a great number of cases showing the protective effect of cowpox, but could only produce 16, most of which he failed to describe in any meaningful detail[8].

Jenner originally claimed that the origin of “cowpox” resided in the damaged heels of horses. He thought that milkers, having previously dressed the sores of afflicted horses, carried the disease to cows. Jenner held this belief for over 10 years and eventually published a paper detailing his “horsegrease” theory. However, when it was poorly received, he returned to his cowpox theory[9].

Disturbingly, during this early period in Jenner’s research, he experimented on his invalid son by inoculating him with “swinepox”, though he never pursued this line of investigation[10]. It is well documented that Jenner conducted various “experiments”, not only on his son but on other neighborhood children who had no understanding of the risks involved. Today, Jenners’ experiments are regarded as a gross violation of medical ethics.

On May 14th, 1796, Jenner inoculated an eight-year boy named James Phipps with matter taken from a sore on the hand of Sarah Nelmes, a dairy maid who was believed to be infected with cowpox. The disease matter “was inserted into the arm by means of two superficial incisions, barely penetrating the cutis, each about half an inch long”[11]. According to some sources, and in contrast to the mainstream narrative, young Phipps later succumbed to an attack of smallpox in the “confluent form”[12].

During another of Jenner’s disturbing experiments, one of the boys contracted a terrible fever and was “rendered unfit for further inoculations”[13]. Who knows how many other unsuspecting children were poisoned or even died as a result of these horrendous experiments.

In 1798, Jenner published the first edition of his Inquiry detailing the results of his cowpox experiments along with his speculations regarding different aspects of vaccination and smallpox. However, Jenner’s work lacked any evidence to suggest that his vaccine could protect against smallpox, a fact highlighted by George Dock in his 1902 book, The Works of Edward Jenner and Their Value in the Modern Study of Smallpox:

“On the whole, the Inquiry does not seem like a work destined to cause a therapeutic revolution. Reading it in our present light, one must be struck by the incompleteness of many parts of the evidence.”[14]

Indeed, as Herbert Shelton confirms in his book Natural Hygiene: Man’s Pristine Way of Life,

“Neither Jenner, nor any of his successors even re-presented the claims for this vaccine, together with proofs, to the Royal Society…”[15]

Although Jenner’s vaccine lacked any evidence of safety or efficacy, it was feverishly promoted to the masses. The Royal Jennerian Society for the Extirpation of Small-pox even prepared a notice to be given by clergymen at the baptism of a child. The notice read, “As you value the life of your infant and the safety of your neighborhood, you will immediately avail yourself of the advantages offered [in vaccination]”[16].

The rollout of Jenner’s vaccine was referred to by mainstream scholars as a “widespread experiment”, which it undoubtedly was. Nonetheless, Jenner continued to promote his invention and in 1801, he published a pamphlet on the Origin of Vaccine Inoculation in which he made reference to experiments he had carried out after his publishing of the Inquiry in 1798. However, the experiments mentioned are nowhere to be found, indicating that Jenner either made them up or purposely chose not to publish them in full[17].

Not only did Jenner lie about the safety of his vaccine, but he insisted that it produced lifetime immunity to smallpox, another claim for which he had no evidence. As is explained in The Works of Edward Jenner,

“A favorite phrase with Jenner and his disciples regarding the question of permanence, was that doubt was refuted by “volumes of evidence and a cloud of witnesses.” As a matter of fact, there were no such volumes, and the witnesses were incompetent because their period of observation was too short.”[18]

Furthermore, Jenner’s observations of ‘cowpox’ may have been grossly misinterpreted, as physicians, later on, discovered that cowpox pustules were only found on the udders of cows milked by filthy human hands and that cows roaming free in pastures were not affected by the disease. This observation alone renders Jenner’s thesis completely null and void.

It is both ironic and tragic that the “father of modern preventative medicine” made assertions based on research that failed to live up to proper scientific standards. An interesting characterization of Edward Jenner and his work is offered by the royal physician, Lord Horder, who credited Jenner with setting the foundation for the introduction of eugenics, a pseudoscientific movement founded 50 years later by Sir Francis Galton, another Englishmen[20].

The second most pervasive myth regarding smallpox is that the disease was totally eradicated due to vaccination. In reality, nothing could be farther from the truth.


Important facts are often left out of the mainstream narrative regarding smallpox and one of them is the massive resistance to Jenner’s vaccine in the UK and abroad. As time went on, it became apparent that Jenner’s vaccine was not responsible for the decline in smallpox cases. In fact, despite widespread vaccination in England after Jenner’s first publication, smallpox reappeared in 1825. As Doch recounts in The Works of Edward Jenner,

“In 1825 smallpox was nearly as prevalent in London as in any of the three great epidemics of the eighteenth century, and in very many parts of Europe it was equally serious.”

Later in 1853, vaccination was made compulsory in the United Kingdom, an Act that was enforced more stringently in 1867 and then again in 1871. However, after 1853 each epidemic of smallpox was worse than the one preceding it. During the first epidemic in England and Wales, between 1857 and 1859, 14,244 people died; during the second epidemic from 1863 to 1865, 20,059 people died and during the third epidemic from 1870-1872, 44,840 people died[22].

More startling is that a large majority of those who contracted smallpox were already vaccinated. According to the 1887 annual report compiled by the Metropolitan Asylums Board, out of 53,000 people who contracted Smallpox, 41,000 were admitted to have occurred in those previously vaccinated. Furthermore, in Sheffield, a town that achieved almost 100% vaccination coverage, 5,851 cases of smallpox out of a total of 7,001 occurred in vaccinated persons[23].

Similar trends were also recorded in other countries in Europe. For example, during the years from 1863-1865 smallpox attacked Upper Bavaria in Germany causing 1,346 cases of the disease, despite the area having 90% vaccination coverage[24]. And on and on the historical accounts go, showing clearly that vaccination did not protect against smallpox and therefore could not have been responsible for its “eradication”.

Not only was the vaccine ineffective at preventing smallpox infection, but it was highly toxic. In William Young’s book, Killed by Vaccination, printed in London in 1886, he documents many cases in which people died as a direct result of Jenner’s vaccine. Government annual death reports from the time show that between 1881 and 1883 the number of children who died as a direct result of the injection was close to 200. Young, however, claims that this number was much higher and estimates that for every 1 killed there were 100 indirectly killed and up to 1,000 seriously injured[25].

Incredibly, even at that time, there was trickery and deception involved in the reporting of vaccine-related deaths. According to Young, doctors were instructed to falsify death certificates in order to obscure the true danger of the vaccine and all independent inquiries into vaccine safety were “carefully suppressed”[26]. We can be certain, then, that nothing has changed between then and now regarding the denial and suppression of vaccine danger.

Perhaps the most powerful passage of Young’s thesis appears at the beginning where he correctly states that:

“No rational theory ever has been or can be advanced to support the ridiculous assumption that Vaccination protects from small-pox. One thing only is certain; thousands of children are killed annually by Vaccination, or its after results, and these victims of medical ignorance and folly are the only persons of whom it can be asserted with truth that vaccination protected them from small-pox.”[27]

Young’s book includes a number of similar testimonies. One of them is written by a “Reverend Bird” from Leeds who, as a man of the clergy, would have been pressured into promoting the vaccine and likely did until observing its effects. In 1885, he admitted that, after witnessing so many cases of painful suffering caused by Jenner’s injection, “no power on earth” would compel him to vaccinate his own children[28].

During the American civil war between 1861 and 1865, thousands of soldiers were vaccinated against smallpox. The adverse effects of the vaccine were so terrible and the adverse events so numerous that a special investigation was launched involving several medical officers. This caused a growing distrust in vaccination amongst soldiers and citizens alike[29]. Alexander Wilder, MD, backs up this observation in his 1899 book, The Fallacy of Vaccination, in which he states that,

“It will be found by careful observation that whenever a vaccinator or corps of vaccinators set out upon a vaccinating crusade, there follows very generally a number of deaths from erysipelas and other maladies which have been induced by the operation, and companied by suffering of the most heartrending character.”[30]

As time went on, opposition to the smallpox vaccine grew. This led to the creation of an anti-vaccination movement in Britain in 1866 which garnered support from influential doctors and scientists including Dr Edgar Crookshank, professor of pathology and bacteriology at King’s College. Other prominent supporters of the movement included the British scientist Alfred Russell Wallace and the famous Irish playwright and political activist, George Bernard Shaw. In an article for the Irish Times in 1944, Shaw wrote the following:

“There is nothing eccentric in my objection to the dangerous and grossly unscientific operation called vaccination. Within my long life-time, its ruthless enforcement throughout Europe ended in two of the worst epidemics of smallpox on record, our formerly more dreaded cholera and typhus epidemics having meanwhile been ended by sanitation […] At present, intelligent and instructed people do not have their children vaccinated, nor does the law now compel them to. The result is not as the Jennerians prophesied, the extermination of the human race by smallpox: on the contrary, more people are now killed by vaccination than by smallpox.”[31]

Note that Shaw highlights the importance of sanitation in ending the cholera and typhus epidemics, a factor that was instrumental in combating smallpox as well. What people often fail to consider is that, at the time of the smallpox epidemics in Europe, sanitary arrangements were absent in many large cities and drainage systems were extremely poor. This was especially true in London where smallpox abounded. Nonetheless, the incidence rate of smallpox in London was extrapolated to the rest of England under the assumption that it was the same everywhere[32].

A combination of medical misdirection and a poor understanding of health led to most medical practitioners failing to recognize that it was the dreadful living conditions of the time that had the most significant effect on the health of the population. Interestingly, it was only the “anti-vaccinationists” who could see this painfully obvious truth, leading them to conclude that it was the improved hygienic conditions and better nutrition that led to the reduction in smallpox cases[33]. Indeed, many modern scholars have noted the relationship between smallpox and famines, believing that widespread malnutrition was a key factor in the onset of the epidemic[34].

Although the authorities attempted to credit vaccination for the declining number of smallpox deaths, again, it was the “anti-vaccinationists” who pointed out that such a connection could not be proved due to a lack of statistical evidence, a fact that authorities and ardent supporters of vaccination could not deny[35]. The trained German statistician, George Friedrich Kolb, was one such expert who pointed this out in his 1887 statement, Zur Impffrage. Unzulanglichkeit der bisherigen Ermittlungen und Verlangen nachAufjebung des Impfzwange (On Vaccination: The Inadequacy of Previous Investigations and a Call to Lift Mandatory Vaccination)[36].

In fact, not only did people question the lack of statistical evidence connecting vaccination with the decline in smallpox deaths, but they also pointed out the complete lack of statistical investigations into the utility of Jenner’s concoction. This wasn’t the anti-vaccinationists merely moving the scientific goal posts away to suit their own agenda, this was a fact that neither the public officials nor the proponents of vaccination could ignore[37].

In light of the previously cited quotes and statistics, an obvious question arises – why was such a demonstrably ineffective and dangerous vaccine so widely disseminated and promoted by governments and physicians of the time? As it turns out, the answer to this question is multi-faceted. First of all, we have to consider that no “cure” existed for smallpox at the time and as such, any promise of a successful treatment immediately piqued the interest of governments and health authorities. However, unsurprisingly, their decision to endorse Jenner’s vaccine was not made because they genuinely cared for the health of the people, instead, it was a move aimed at increasing the military and economic power of the state. As Heurkamp (1985) explains:

“The fact that most governments encouraged the vaccine should be seen in the light of their policies on population and the interests that lay behind them. By this time, in Germany as well as in other European countries, an absolutist regime existed which aimed to strengthen central authority at the expense of the old powers of the estates, and to maximize all available resources in order to increase its military and financial power.”[38]

Another group whose vested interests played an important role in the rollout of Jenner’s vaccine were the physicians and medical practitioners. At the time, university trained physicians were few in number and wholly dependent upon the upper classes of society whom they served. And because those in the medical profession were not recognized by public authorities as experts in all medical matters, doctors were required to bend over backward to keep their few upper-class clients happy. Furthermore, the medical knowledge possessed by doctors at the time was limited and did not exceed that which could be acquired by the layman. Because of this, the market for professional medical services was small and a physician’s income was often dependent on only a handful of patients.

When Jenner’s vaccine came out, it presented an opportunity for medical practitioners to increase their prestige and influence in matters of public health and attract new patients. Not only that but vaccination fees provided physicians with a simple means of increasing their income[39].


Now it is worth discussing certain aspects of the smallpox narrative within the context of more recent scientific research. First is the notion that smallpox was a “highly contagious” and extremely deadly disease. Despite many sources claiming this to be the case, current wisdom holds that smallpox was not a highly infectious disease[40][41].

Second is the notion that smallpox was “eradicated”, a claim that is widely promoted by health authorities. For example, on the CDC website, they state that:

“In 1980, the World Health Assembly declared smallpox eradicated (eliminated), and no cases of naturally occurring smallpox have happened since.”[42]

In contrast to this assertion, the medical literature indicates that vaccinia virus infection affects a growing number of people each year. For example, in a paper titled Outbreak of severe zoonotic vaccinia virus infection, Southeastern Brazil, researchers note that (emphasis added):

“In 2010, a vaccinia virus isolate caused an atypically severe outbreak that affected humans and cattle in Brazil. Of 26 rural workers affected, 12 were hospitalized. Our data raise questions about the risk factors related to the increasing number and severity of vaccinia virus infections.”[43]

So what is the difference between vaccinia infection and smallpox? According to authorities, smallpox is caused by the variola virus, while vaccinia refers to a related virus used in the smallpox vaccine. It is said that both viruses are members of the “Poxviridae” family, which also includes other zoonotic variants such as “monkeypox” and “buffalopox”. According to experts,

“The widely used VACV [vaccinia virus] ‘escaped into the wild’ and variants of VACV are now globally endemic and are known as buffalopox virus (BPXV)”[44].

Indeed, scientists acknowledge that “buffalopox” remains a threat to humans, especially in India[45]. As for monkeypox, the fact page on the CDC website states that:

“The first human case of monkeypox was recorded in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo during a period of intensified effort to eliminate smallpox. Since then monkeypox has been reported in humans in other central and western African countries.”[46]

Incredibly, cases of “monkeypox” continue to arise in parts of Africa and more recently, the USA. Other research papers make mention of the fact that cowpox, too, frequently infects people in Europe[47].

Worth noting is that all of these “poxviruses” cause symptoms virtually identical to smallpox. A document compiled by the Australian government states that “Monkeypox infection is rare but may clinically resemble smallpox.”[48] Furthermore, infections are often diagnosed based on symptoms and/or PCR testing, which the WHO admits is “usually inconclusive”[49].

Keeping this in mind, let us not forget that coming up with a new name for the same condition is a classic trick used by the medical profession to mask the prevalence of a certain disease, which they then claim to be eradicated or greatly reduced. Similar sleight of hand has been used with polio, where authorities now refer to cases of the disease as “acute flaccid paralysis” or “acute flaccid myelitis”[50].

It is clear, then, that despite the assertion that the disease was eradicated in 1980, cases that resemble smallpox still occur rather frequently around the world. Significant is that these cases occur predominantly in poor areas known for their high rates of malnutrition and unsanitary living conditions, lending credence to the theory that the environment plays a key role in the etiology of the disease.

In further support of this conclusion are numerous documented cases of people failing to “catch” the disease despite being in close proximity to an infected individual. There are also cases in which individuals, or groups of people, have become ill with smallpox despite no identifiable source of contagion. A few such cases are outlined below.

The first case is recounted by the American naturopath, Henry Lindlahr, in his book Philosophy of Natural Therapeutics:

“A few years ago Dr. Rodermund, a physician in the state of Wisconsin, created a sensation by smearing his body with the exudate of smallpox sores in order to demonstrate to his medical colleagues that a healthy body could not be infected with the disease. He was arrested and quarantined in jail, but not before he had come in contact with many people. Not a single case of smallpox developed through this “exposure”.”[51]

A second case is recounted by Lindlahr, this time concerning his own son who contracted smallpox:

“My wife, her sister and myself by turns slept in the same room with the child without the least fear of infection, and although we had not been vaccinated since childhood we remained unaffected by the “contagious disease” […] As far as I could learn, there was not another case of smallpox in Chicago or its vicinity at the time of the boy’s illness. If the contagion theory be true, from whom did he ‘catch’ the disease, and why did not one of the many persons living in the same house become infected?”[52]

Below is a third “anomalous” case recounted by Alexander Wilder, MD, in his book The Fallacy of Vaccination.

“Mr. Wolfe, in his treatise on “ Zymotic Diseases,” mentions an instance in India where small-pox broke out in a region many miles distant from any possible source of contagion. He attributed it to the action of decaying animal matter, and remarks that the same poisonous air will sometimes give one zymotic disease to one member of a family, and another to another, according to the bodily constitution.”

Here is a final quote from Small-pox and Vaccination by Alexander M. Ross, M.D.:

“During a small-pox epidemic the vaccinated, as well as the unvaccinated, are equally susceptible to the contagion if surrounded by unsanitary conditions.”[54]

Naturopathic physicians have offered an explanation for these apparent “anomalies” by suggesting that smallpox, far from a disease caused by a malignant germ, represents an “acute eliminative process” deliberately carried out by the body in order to rid the system of toxins and other morbid matter. Considering the evidence presented above, this explanation is more than plausible[55].

In fact, there is a further line of evidence that corroborates the naturopathic interpretation of smallpox and it has to do with the contents of Jenner’s vaccine.

But first, it’s worth reminding ourselves of the “logic” behind Jenner’s smallpox vaccine: Jenner bought into a belief held by dairy maids that an attack of “cowpox” would provide immunity from smallpox. “Cowpox” was the ulceration of a cow’s udder, thought to be caused by a virus related to smallpox. Thus Jenner created a vaccine that contained the cowpox virus. Administering this vaccine caused the body to produce antibodies that were protective against smallpox, preventing future infection.

However, here’s where the mainstream narrative completely breaks down because in 1939, a researcher at the University of Liverpool named Allan Watt Downie compared the contents of a smallpox vaccine to a sample of cowpox isolated directly from an infected cow and found that they were different. In fact, the samples were so different, scientists had to conclude that the “virus” present in Jenner’s vaccine could not have come from cowpox. This raises the inevitable question asked by reporter Katherine Wu in an article for the Smithsonian Magazine, “What on earth had they been injecting into the arms of millions of people for the past 150 years?”[56] What on earth indeed.

In other words, by 1939, scientists had already discovered that Jenner’s vaccine was a farce and did not contain what it was “supposed to” contain, essentially disproving his entire theory regarding cowpox, smallpox and immunity. Yet, despite this important revelation, 80 years later the mainstream fairy tale (because that is what it is) has not changed and medical students are still taught the “cowpox” story.

More recent research into Jenner’s mystery vaccine has concluded that it contained a form of “horsepox”, though researchers admit that they have no idea where it came from[57]. Meanwhile, CDC researchers have come up with yet another conclusion, stating that “a swarm of viruses was used in various vaccines.”[58]

So in other words, it wasn’t cowpox that people were being inoculated with, it was a swarm of different “viruses” contained within diseased matter taken from a range of sickly animals. From this we can only draw one conclusion: Jenner’s vaccine, far from a medical marvel, was a witches brew of unknown origin that could not possibly have offered any therapeutic benefit. Indeed, the reason that the US stopped vaccinating against smallpox in 1972 was not due to the “eradication” of the disease as stated by authorities, but because the risks were judged to outweigh the benefits[59]. Scientists have even gone so far as to call Jenner’s concoction “the most dangerous vaccine known to man”[60].

This article has shown that, far from a medical triumph, the smallpox vaccine was a widespread experiment that was opposed by citizens, doctors and scholars of the time. Not only did the vaccine cause many cases of injury and death, but there was no statistical evidence to suggest it had any utility as a preventative against smallpox. And though the decrease in smallpox cases was attributed to the vaccine alone, it is clear that improvement in living conditions and better nutrition were the most important factors involved in alleviating the disease. It seems pertinent to end this investigation by quoting the American naturopath, Henry Lindlahr:

“Smallpox eruptions are a sign of rapid elimination of hereditary and acquired disease taints. A good dose of smallpox may rid the system of more scrofulous, tuberculous and syphilitic poisons than could otherwise have been got rid of in a lifetime. Therefore smallpox is certainly to be preferred to vaccination. The one means the elimination of chronic disease, the other the making of it.”[61]


[1] Retief, F., Cilliers, L. 1998. The epidemic of Athens, 430-426 BC.
[2] Gross, C., Sepkowitz, K. 1998. The Myth of the Medical Breakthrough: Smallpox, Vaccination, and Jenner Reconsidered.
[3] Riedal, S. 2005. Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination.
[4] White, W. 1885. The Story of the Great Delusion. Chapter 4.
[5] Lindlahr, H. 1975. Philosophy of Natural Therapeutics. Pp.96.
[6] Browne, B (sir). Life of Edward Jenner (1749-1823). Pp3.
[7] Lester, D., Parker, D. 2019. What Really Makes You Ill: Why Everything You Thought You Knew About Disease Is Wrong. Pp47 [Kindle version].
[8] Dock, G. 1902. The Works of Edward Jenner and Their Value in the Modern Study of Smallpox. Pp8.
[9] Ibid. Pp5.
[10] Ibid.
[11] Ibid. Pp8.
[12] Wilder, A. 1899. The Fallacy of Vaccination. Pp6.
[13] Dock, G. 1902. The Works of Edward Jenner and Their Value in the Modern Study of Smallpox. Pp9.
[14] Ibid. Pp11.
[15] Shelton, H. Natural Hygiene: Man’s Pristine Way of Life. Pp399. Accessed here:
[16] Dock, G. 1902. The Works of Edward Jenner and Their Value in the Modern Study of Smallpox. Pp19.
[17] Ibid. Pp27.
[18] Ibid. Pp33.
[19] Lindlahr, H. 1975. Philosophy of Natural Therapeutics. Pp98.
[20] Lord Horder. An Address on Eugenics and the Doctor. 1933. Accessed here:
[21] Dock, G. 1902. The Works of Edward Jenner and Their Value in the Modern Study of Smallpox. Pp34.
[22] Arnold, W. Et al. 1889. Notes on Vaccination (Dedicated to the Board of Guardians for the Union of West Bromwich). Included as part of a publication titled “Brief Extracts From High Authorities Exposing the Evils of Vaccination: The Great Medical Delusion of the Nineteenth Century, Now Exciting popular Indignation” from the US national library of medicine.
[23] Ibid.
[24] Wilder, A. 1899. The Fallacy of Vaccination. Pp10.
[25] Young, W. 1886. Killed by Vaccination. Pp4.
[26] Ibid. Pp5.
[27] Ibid pp4.
[28] Ibid pp8.
[29] Jones, J. 1867. Spurious Vaccination, or the Abnormal Phenomena Accompanying and following Vaccination in the Confederate Army During the Recent American Civil War, 1861—1865. Pp4.
[30] Wilder, A. 1899. The Fallacy of Vaccination. Pp7.
[31] Bernard S., G. 1944. Not Without Honour. Irish Times (Wednesday 9 August, 1944).
[32] Lester, D., Parker, D. 2019. What Really Makes You Ill: Why Everything You Thought You Knew About Disease Is Wrong. Pp49 [Kindle version].
[33] Huerkamp, C. 1985. The History of Smallpox Vaccination in Germany.
[34] Dawson, M. 1979. Smallpox in Kenya 1880-1920.
[35] Ibid.
[36] Kolb, F, G. 1877. Zur Impffrage: Unzulänglichketi der bisherigen Ermittelungen und Verlangen nach Aufhebung des Impfzwanges.
[37] Huerkamp, C. 1985. The History of Smallpox Vaccination in Germany. Pp628.
[38] Ibid. Pp620.
[39] Ibid. Pp621.
[40] Lane, J. M., Goldstein, L. 2003. Evaluation of 21st-century risks of smallpox vaccination and policy options.
[41] Weiss, M. M., et al. 2004. Rethinking Smallpox.
[42] CDC. Smallpox.
[43] Abrahao, S, J, et al. 2015. Outbreak of Severe Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus Infection, Southeastern Brazil.
[44] Gelderblom, H., Madeley, D. 2018. Rapid Viral Diagnosis of Orthopoxviruses by Electron Microscopy: Optional or a Must?.
[45] Moussatche, N., Damaso, C., McFadden, G. 2008. When good vaccines go wild: Feral Orthopoxvirus in developing countries and beyond.
[46] CDC. Monkeypox.
[47] Moussatche, N., Damaso, C., McFadden, G. 2008. When good vaccines go wild: Feral Orthopoxvirus in developing countries and beyond.
[48] Australian Government Department of Defense. 2012. Critical Factors for Parameterisation of Disease Diagnosis Modelling for Anthrax, Plague and Smallpox.
[49] WHO. 2019. Monkeypox Fact Sheet.
[50] CDC. 2001. Public Health Dispatch: Acute Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Circulating Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus — Philippines, 2001.
[51] Lindlahr, H. 1975. Philosophy of Natural Therapeutics. Pp39.
[52] Ibid. Pp108.
[53] Wilder, A. 1899. The Fallacy of Vaccination. Pp17.
[54] Ross, A. Small-pox and Vaccination. Included as part of a publication titled “Brief Extracts From High Authorities Exposing the Evils of Vaccination: The Great Medical Delusion of the Nineteenth Century, Now Exciting popular Indignation” from the US national library of medicine.
[55] Lindlahr, H. 1975. Philosophy of Natural Therapeutics. Pp69.
[56] Wu, K. 2018. The Mysterious Origins of the Smallpox Vaccine. Smithsonian Magazine.
[57] Schrick, L., et al. 2017. An Early American Smallpox Vaccine Based on Horsepox.
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[60] Kohn, D. 2002. The Most Dangerous Vaccine.
[61] Lindlahr, H. 1975. Philosophy of Natural Therapeutics. Pp108.

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